الثلاثاء، 12 أبريل، 2011

Terminology and concepts of international protection of human rights

 
Terminology and concepts of international protection of human rights
Declaration: A set of ideas and general principles, does not have Balsafp Alaltazamip, with literary and moral value, and enjoy the moral and political weight if issued by an international body such as the General Assembly of the United Nations. And advertising is such as international custom. And advertising are often issued in rare circumstances when it stipulates the principles of major significance and lasting value, as is the case for scientific Declaration of Human Rights. And the Declaration Synonym: Rules - Principles - Blog - guidelines. Advertising has become a standard measured by the degree of respect for international standards of human rights and restriction provisions. Treaty: Launches are usually of the international agreement that addresses the legal regulation of the subject of particular importance and political nature, such as the peace treaty held Pfersai on June 28, 1919 between the allied countries, Germany, and the Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Egypt in August 26, 1936. Convention: convention called the International Compact is intended to establish legal rules binding upon the parties. Contractual agreement: be bilateral between the two states, with the topic of a particular situation or a particular issue of concern to the States Parties to the Convention to formulate their organization or a particular solution, and is designed to just create obligations on the parties to the application of primary rules between them. Convention on the street: to be multilateral and be the subject of the establishment of international rules of substance or the creation of legal norms and not merely reciprocal obligations of States, the will of the parties to an international agreement to be one and that refer to the unit object and the value of the legal rules established by the Convention, and aims the parties behind the conclusion of the age of new international rules governing the relations between them. It is most likely to be international conventions, multilateral or collective agreements are international agreements such as the street of human rights and the Charter of the United Nations. Nodal and conventions are a source of obligations, and conventions of normative be a source of legal rules Era: an international agreement the term is synonymous with the Convention, it was reported twice in the race for the international covenants on human rights (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966) Charter: the term given to the international conventions that are meant to give glory to the theme which is usually a facility for international or regional organizations, such as the United Nations Charter signed on June 26, 1945, and the Arab League Charter, signed in ... System: the term given to the treaties of the General Structural formula, such as the Statute of the International Criminal Court, signed in Rome in June 1998. Agreement: used to regulate matters of a political nature, or to organize the issues of an economic overcome them. Statement: usually called the agreements will be subject to confirm the principles of legal and political common such as a statement in November 1815 on the current status of the Swiss permanent neutrality. Protocol: legal action is used as a supplementary means to register the wills of the States agree on the issues of dependency as previously agreed in the Convention, held them, dealing with record what has happened in international conferences. And the Protocol derives its legal force of the Convention thereto, and subject to all stages of the Convention: Negotiate, editing, drafting, signing, ratification. Location: Commissioners make the delegates of the Contracting States to express their gratification at the State provisions of the Convention. And sign either be initialed is to give delegates an opportunity to return to their countries and to identify the desire for it was agreed, therefore, supported the position was the final signature, the signature governments refused to sign the final edit. Initialed and signed is not binding and are not forced to sign the final delegates, meaning that each retains absolute freedom in the final signature or omission. Ratification: conduct intended to obtain the statements of the competent authorities in the countries of the Convention that have been signed. The nature of these powers by constitutional law in each country, in Egypt identifies the authorities in the People's Assembly, and in France, represented by the President of the Republic. And a certification that the State has formally accepted the Convention and its entry into force in its territory. There is no particular order for ratification before its expiry unless select such a term explicitly in the agreement. Accession: procedure by which a State has not a party to the Convention, to express its desire to become a party to this Convention, the State must take into account in this case, the procedures set forth in the Convention on the accession. Reservation: the Declaration is intended by the State to exclude or modify the legal effect of certain provisions in the Convention in their application to this State, any State that requested an exemption from the application of a particular in the Convention. And the reservation will be exclusion or interpretation. And the reservation will be accepted only in the following cases: - (A) If the reservation is prohibited in the Convention. (B) whether the Convention allows certain reservations do not include the reservation. (C) if the reservation was contrary to the object or purpose of the Convention. Withdraw from the agreements: It is permissible to withdraw from the Convention if the agreement governing such withdrawal does not produce its effects only after one year from the date of the withdrawal demand. Entry into force of the Convention: Convention enters into force the completion of a quorum for a number of States have ratified the Convention and the number of States or a quorum is relatively different from one convention to another, for example, the Statute of the Criminal Court in 1998 required ratification by 60 countries, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966 requires ratification by 35 countries. Convention on the Rights of the Child requires ratification by 20 countries. International law of human rights: a branch of public international law and consists of a set of rules and principles of written legal and customary practices that ensure respect for human rights and freedoms and prosperity, and aims to protect the rights of the individual civil and political, economic, social and cultural rights and the protection of collective rights and ensure the rights of the people.
 
And sources are in treaties, custom, general principles of law, jurisprudence and the judiciary, national and international organizations and the decisions of international conferences. International humanitarian law: the branch of public international law consists of a set of rules written legal and customary practices that apply in a time of international armed conflicts and non-international, designed rules to protect persons affected by armed conflict, as well as protection money and objects which are not directly related to military operations, which known as the Law of Geneva (Geneva Convention 1864 - Geneva Convention 1906 - Geneva Convention 1929 - four of the Geneva Convention in August 1949, and Brockollagha Allahakan of 1977. The aim of the rules on the other hand to regulate means and methods of use of force in armed conflict, which is known as the Law of The Hague (Hague Convention 1907 - In addition to conventions: the prohibition of the use of mines and weapons over conventional weapons, biological weapons and nuclear weapons)
International Bill of Human Rights: The term is intended to specifically five documents are: - Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 - The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966 - The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966. - Optional Protocol to the International Covenant Supplement, p. Civil and Political Rights (individual complaints) (1966) - Optional Protocol to the International Covenant Supplement, p. Civil and Political Rights (Abolition of the death penalty) (1966) And launched this term to the Commission on Human Rights at its first meeting in December 1947 on a series of documents being prepared at the time (the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants) Human Rights Committee: A committee constituted under Article 28 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1966 and consists of 18 independent experts nominated and elected by States parties to the Covenant for ways secret ballot and work in their personal capacity for four years and the complexity of the three meetings annually, and report to the the General Assembly on ways of Economic and Social Council The Committee shall monitor the implementation of the provisions of the Covenant through: A - receive and consider initial and periodic reports submitted by States parties to the Covenant on their compliance with its provisions and the application made to apply the articles of the Covenant. B - the Committee can consider complaints by one State against another claim not to its commitment to the Covenant, provided that both issued a declaration recognizing the competence of the Committee in this matter, and in accordance with the provisions of Article 41 of the Covenant. C - under the provisions of the Optional Protocol to the Covenant the Committee receives complaints from individuals who claim violations of their rights from their respective countries and shall be entitled to take whatever action is required (this is the right guaranteed to individuals from countries that have ratified the Covenant and the Optional Protocol. And provided only that the complaint is anonymous and not be replaced investigation before the other international destinations and the exhaustion of domestic remedies.). Commission on Human Rights have been canceled :-( and concluded its work in the 06/16/2006, replaced by the International Council for Human Rights -) Where Article 68 of the Charter of the United Nations "to be established by the Economic and Social Affairs committees of the Economic and Social Commission for the promotion of human rights as established such other commissions as may be required to perform his job. Pursuant to this text The Commission on Human Rights established by a decision of the Economic and Social Council 5 "D-1", dated February 16, 1946. And completed formed by Council resolution 9 "d 2" of June 21, 1946, which mandated the Committee to conduct studies and prepare recommendations and draft declarations and international conventions on human rights, which are also including mandated by the General Assembly or the Economic and Social Council of the special tasks include the investigation of allegations of violations and consider communications relating to these violations. The Commission cooperates closely with all United Nations bodies related to human rights and bring the rest of the Member States of the United Nations Committee sessions as observers. The Committee may invite any national liberation movement recognized by the resolutions of the General Assembly to participate in its deliberations on any matter of concern to that movement in particular. It is permissible for non-governmental organizations in consultative status with Economic and Social Council representatives to attend as observers at public meetings of the Committee. The Committee is composed of representatives of 53 member states are to be elected for three years, and the maximum duration of the mandate of the expert six years and may be extended for another three years. The Committee meets annually for a period of six weeks from March to April. And the Commission to a number of special rapporteurs and working groups for more than forty and are referred to different labels: team work, a special rapporteur, special representative of the Secretary-General, an independent expert, the representative of the Commission. They work on two levels: 1 - mechanics of objectivity: looking at specific types of human rights violations, and the first mechanism set up in 1980 is the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary, then followed by the mechanics of processing operations Alaadm outside the scope of the Act 1982, At a later stage established mechanisms to address the issues of torture in 1985, and the freedom of opinion and expression, 1993, forced detention in 1991 Representative of the Secretary-General of the Defenders of Human Rights resolution 2000 ,........ 2 - national mechanisms: work examined the situation of human rights in specific countries, and created the first automatic Qatripaam 1984 the appointment of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, then followed by the appointment of special rapporteurs in other countries: Iraq 1991, Myanmar 1991, In 1993 was appointed special rapporteurs to study the situation in Cambodia, land Alalvelstinp occupied since 1967, Somalia, Sudan, In 1994, the Kengo Orteurkhas Democratic ,....... And specializes in country and thematic mechanisms to conduct general studies of the human rights situation, and received the messages, which alleges violations. And the mechanisms by appealing to governments in the form of urgent appeals or letters, and the special rapporteurs and working groups and field visits to sites of events to study the situation on the ground. The officials of the mechanisms in their annual reports to the Commission in the role of Anaakedha March and April of each year. Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: In the first session of the Human Rights Commission in 1947 established the Sub-Commission (her name was until 1999 the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities) The Committee is composed of 26 independent experts elected by the Commission on Human Rights for a period of three years. The Committee holds a meeting once a year at least for three weeks, and encourages its member representatives and non-members and representatives from the United Nations specialized agencies and the liberation movements and observers from non-governmental organizations have consultative status with Economic and Social Council. And specializes in the following tasks: : A) studies on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. B) make recommendations to the Commission on Human Rights with regard to discrimination and human rights and fundamental freedoms and the protection of minorities. C) carry out any tasks entrusted to it by the Commission on Human Rights or the Economic and Social Council. Under resolution 1574 of 1965 authorized the Economic and Social Council Sub-Commission study of reports by States. Under resolution 1235 of 1967 authorized the NSH Economic and Social Council Sub-Committee and the Commission on Human Rights to study and examine the messages about serious violations of human rights that they received from individuals and non-governmental organizations. Sub-Commission established several working groups including: Working Group on Communications under resolution 1503 (look at complaints that reflect a consistent pattern of violations), and the Working Group on Slavery and the practice of slave trade, slavery-like exploitation of child labor and prostitution, and the Working Group on persons arrested and detained, and the Working Group on Indigenous Populations. High Commissioner for Human Rights: the post of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights established the decision of the General Assembly of the United Nations in the 48 th session on December 20, 1993, in response to the demands and recommendations of non-governmental organizations and the latest recommendation of the 1993 International Conference on Human Rights in Vienna. And a respect of the High Commissioner for Human Rights the following activities: A) To supervise the activities of the United Nations in the field of human rights, and coordination of United Nations programs of education and media in the field of human rights, and the transfer of information, reports, studies, data and messages to UN bodies on human rights. B) the promotion and protection of human rights, and follow-up fact-finding missions, and intervention in cases of emergency, which necessitates preventive measures, and follow-up of commissions of inquiry, and the implementation of the recommendations made by special rapporteurs and working groups V) provision of technical and financial assistance and advisory services in the field of human rights W) to conduct a dialogue with Governments, international organizations and of the regional and non-governmental organizations in order to ensure respect for human rights. Headed by UNHCR High Commissioner degree, deputy secretary general, appointed by the Secretary General of the United Nations for four years. She is Judge Canadian Louise Arbo post of High Commissioner for Human Rights, the successor to br Sergoa Feria Dmillo (2002-2003), who was assassinated the end of 2003 in Iraq, and the Commissioners previous to Dmillo are: Mary Rbinson (1997-2002) Jose Ella - Lasso (1994-1997) .
Non-governmental organizations with consultative status at the United Nations: Article 71 of the Charter of the United Nations "of the Economic and Social Council may make suitable arrangements and consultation of non-governmental organizations" On May 23, 1968 issued the Economic and Social Council resolution 1269 (d -24) and select the criteria for granting consultative status to non-governmental organizations: 1) that the objectives and purposes of the Organization on matters within the jurisdiction of the Economic and Social Council. 2) that the objectives and purposes of the organization in line with the spirit of the Charter of the United Nations and the purposes and principles. 3) organization pledged to support the work of the United Nations and promote knowledge of its principles and its 4) The organization is managed democracy, and to be the Organization's financial resources and a clear, independent, and be organized with international standing and recognized borders. And organizations that have consultative status have a duty to submit reports on its activities every four years and maintain its performance and activities which Bmqdah granted consultative status. In return for these duties the Organization shall enjoy the following rights: - Delegates to attend sessions as observers Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights, the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights. - Submit written statements on the human rights situation - To make oral statements at the hearing - Request the inclusion of agenda items discussed and the right - Provide information on the violation of human rights Divided non-governmental organizations in relation to Economic and Social Council into three categories: Organizations, the first category: General consultative status, which means most of the activities of the Council and has made outstanding contributions in the United Nations. Organizations, the second category: in special consultative status, which has jurisdiction over specific aspects of dealing with a few of the activities of the Council. Organizations of the third category: Organizations included in the list of specialized consultations, and sometimes a useful contribution in the activity of the Council.
National institutions for human rights: are institutions established under a decision issued by the President or one of the competent authorities in the country. And operates according to the Paris Principles (General Assembly resolution 48/134- December 1993) and specializes in the following: The promotion and protection of human rights through the provision of opinions and recommendations and proposals and reports in an advisory capacity to the official and unofficial States. And is working to urge the State to join and ratification Alyalmwathiq international human rights. It also seeks to ensure the harmonization of domestic laws of the State with its obligations under its accession to international conventions on human rights. It prepares the reports submitted by the State of the oversight committees of international conventions. Also contribute to the preparation and Tafiel programs for the teaching of human rights. There are Arab states initiated the establishment of national councils for human rights are: Advisory Council for Human Rights in Morocco - National Council for Human Rights in Egypt - the supreme body of human rights and fundamental freedoms in Tunisia - the National Advisory Committee to strengthen and protect human rights in Algeria - the Palestinian Independent Commission for Human Rights - National Center for Human Rights in Jordan - National Society for Human Rights in Saudi Arabia - National Commission on Human rights in diameter. Ministry of Human Rights Iraq - the Independent Electoral Commission of Human Rights Iraq under construction.
Human Rights Council: an international subsidiary of the General Assembly of the United Nations, and replace the Commission on Human Rights - which was abolished and concluded in 16/6/2006- and established the International Council for Human Rights by the General Assembly of the United Nations on Feb. 24, 2006 ((A/60/L 0.48 were elected members of the council elections in May 9, 2006 and held its first meeting on June 19, 2006. The Board is composed of 47 member states elected by the majority of the members of the General Assembly by secret ballot directly and individually, and procedures for membership are subject to the rule of equitable geographical distribution to all member states that the distribution of seats on the Council as follows: 13 members of the African Group, 13 of the Asian Group, 6 to group Eastern Europe, 8 for Latin American Group, 7 to set Western Europe and other countries. - The results of the elections - in the victory 05/09/2006 seven Arab countries to membership of the Council (Tunisia - Algeria - Djibouti - Jordan - Bahrain - Saudi Arabia) In the second session of the Council was elected in 17/05/2007 Egypt within the African Group, and Qatar in the Asian group. And extends the mandate of the members of the council three years may not be re-elected for more than twice. The Council is working in a neutral and objective and the distance from selectivity Matdma style of dialogue and international cooperation aimed at promoting and strengthening effective coordination of human rights, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights and the right to development. And respect to the International Council for Human Rights the following actions: 1 - to carry out all functions of the functions and responsibilities of the Commission on Human Rights, and Labor to improve and rationalize and maintain the system of special procedures and procedures for complaints 2 - Promotion and protection of human rights and addressing situations of violations of human rights, gross and systematic. 1 - Baltthiagaf advancement and education in the field of human rights as well as advisory services and technical assistance Balchaol with our member countries. 2 - Establishing a dialogue between Member States in all topics related to the field of human rights. 3 - Provide recommendations to the General Assembly to develop the international law of human rights. 4 - Continuing the commitment of the States of their obligations under international covenants on human rights. 5 - to establish dialogue and to urge international cooperation to prevent human rights violations and respond promptly to emergency situations related to human rights. 6 - to replace the Commission on Human Rights with regard to over responsibility to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 7 - equal cooperation and action among governments, national institutions for human rights and civil society organizations. 8 - to make recommendations concerning the promotion and protection of human rights, and Tkadit an annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations.

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