الأحد، 27 مارس، 2011

الحقوق والحريات في الدستور العراقي

الحقوق والحريات -الدستور العراقي

الباب الثاني
الحقوق والحريات


الفصل الأول
[ الحقوق ]
الفرع الأول :ـ الحقوق المدنية والسياسية

المادة (14):العراقيون متساوون أمام القانون دون تمييزٍ بسبب الجنس أو العرق أو القومية أو الأصل أو اللون أو الدين أو المذهب أو المعتقد أو الرأي أو الوضع الاقتصادي أو الاجتماعي.
                                                                               
المادة (15): لكل فردٍ الحق في الحياة والأمن والحرية، ولا يجوز الحرمان من هذه الحقوق أو تقييدها إلا وفقاً للقانون، وبناءً على قرارٍ صادرٍ من جهةٍ قضائيةٍ مختصة.

المادة (16):
 تكافؤ الفرص حقٌ مكفولٌ لجميع العراقيين، وتكفل الدولة اتخاذ الإجراءات اللازمة لتحقيق ذلك.

المادة (17): اولاً :ـ لكل فردٍ الحق في الخصوصية الشخصية، بما لا يتنافى مع حقوق الآخرين، والآداب العامة .
ثانياً :ـ حرمة المساكن مصونةٌ، ولا يجوز دخولها او تفتيشها او التعرض لها الا بقرارٍ قضائي، ووفقاً للقانون.

المادة (18):
اولاً :ـ الجنسية العراقية حقٌ لكل عراقي، وهي أساس مواطنته.

ثانياً :ـ يعدُ عراقياً كل من ولد لأبٍ عراقي أو لاُمٍ عراقية،وينظم ذلك بقانون.

ثالثاً :ـ أـ يحظر إسقاط الجنسية العراقية عن العراقي بالولادة لأي سببٍ من الأسباب، ويحق لمن اسقطت عنه طلب استعادتها، وينظم ذلك بقانون.
ب ـ تسحب الجنسية العراقية من المتجنس بها في الحالات التي ينص عليها القانون.

رابعاً :ـ يجوز تعدد الجنسية للعراقي، وعلى من يتولى منصباً سيادياً أو امنياً رفيعاً، التخلي عن اية جنسيةٍ اخرى مكتسبة، وينظم ذلك بقانون.

خامساً :ـ لا تمنح الجنسية العراقية لأغراض سياسة التوطين السكاني المخل بالتركيبة السكانية في العراق.

سادساً :ـ تنظم أحكام الجنسية بقانونٍ، وينظر في الدعاوى الناشئة عنها من قبل المحاكم المختصة.

المادة (19):
أولاً :ـ القضاء مستقل لا سلطان عليه لغير القانون.  

ثانياً :ـ لا جريمة ولا عقوبة إلا بنص، ولا عقوبة إلا على الفعل الذي يعده القانون وقت اقترافه جريمة، ولا يجوز تطبيق عقوبة اشد من العقوبة النافذة وقت ارتكاب الجريمة.

ثالثاً :ـ التقاضي حقٌ مصونٌ ومكفولٌ للجميع.

رابعاً :ـ حق الدفاع مقدسٌ ومكفولٌ في جميع مراحل التحقيق والمحاكمة.

خامساً :ـ المتهم بريء حتى تثبت إدانته في محاكمةٍ قانونيةٍ عادلةٍ، ولا يحاكم المتهم عن التهمة ذاتها مرةً أخرى بعد الإفراج عنه، إلا إذا ظهرت أدلةٌ جديدة.

سادساً :ـ لكل فردٍ الحق في أن يعامل معاملةً عادلةً في الإجراءات القضائية والإدارية.

سابعاً :ـ جلسات المحاكم علنيةٌ إلا إذا قررت المحكمة جعلها سريةً.

ثامناً :ـ العقوبة شخصيةٌ.

تاسعاً :ـ ليس للقوانين اثرٌ رجعي ما لم يُنص على خلاف ذلك، ولا يشمل هذا الاستثناء قوانين الضرائب والرسوم.
عاشراً :ـ  لا يسرى القانون الجزائي بأثرٍ رجعي إلا إذا كان أصلحَ للمتهم.

حادي عشر :ـ تنتدب المحكمة محامياً للدفاع عن المتهم بجنايةٍ أو جنحةٍ لمن ليس له محامٍ يدافع عنه، وعلى نفقة الدولة.

ثاني عشر :ـ أ ـ يحظر الحجز.
ب ـ لا يجوز الحبس أو التوقيف في غير الأماكن المخصصة لذلك وفقاً لقوانين السجون المشمولة بالرعاية الصحية والاجتماعية والخاضعة لسلطات الدولة.

ثالث عشر :ـ تعرض أوراق التحقيق الابتدائي على القاضي المختص خلال مدة لا تتجاوز أربعاً وعشرين ساعة من حين القبض على المتهم، ولا يجوز تمديدها إلا مرة واحدة وللمدة ذاتها.

المادة  (20): للمواطنين رجالاً ونساءً، حق المشاركة في الشؤون العامة، والتمتع بالحقوق السياسية، بما فيها حق التصويت والانتخاب والترشيح.

المادة (21): أولاً :ـ يحظر تسليم العراقي الى الجهات والسلطات الاجنبية.
ثانياً :ـ ينظم حق اللجوء السياسي إلى العراق بقانونٍ، ولا يجوز تسليم اللاجئ السياسي إلى جهةٍ أجنبية، أو إعادته قسراً إلى البلد الذي فرّ منه.
ثالثاً :ـ لا يمنح حق اللجوء السياسي إلى المتهم بارتكاب جرائم دولية أو إرهابية، أو كل من الحقَ ضرراً بالعراق.
الفرع الثاني  :ـ الحقوق الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والثقافية

المادة (22):
اولاً :ـ  العمل حقٌ لكل العراقيين بما يضمن لهم حياةً كريمةً.
ثانياً :ـ ينظم القانون، العلاقة بين العمال واصحاب العمل على اسسٍ اقتصادية، مع مراعاة قواعد العدالة الاجتماعية.
ثالثاً :ـ تكفل الدولة حق تأسيس النقابات والاتحادات المهنية، أو الانضمام إليها، وينظم ذلك بقانون.

المادة ( 23):
أولاً :ـ الملكية الخاصة مصونةٌ، ويحق للمالك الانتفاع بها واستغلالها والتصرف بها، في حدود القانون.
ثانياً :ـ لا يجوز نزع الملكية إلا لأغراض المنفعة العامة مقابل تعويضٍ عادل، وينظم ذلك بقانون.
ثالثاً :ـ
أ ـ للعراقي الحق في التملك في أي مكانٍ في العراق، ولا يجوز لغيره تملك غير المنقول، الا ما استثني
      بقانون.
ب ـ يحظر التملك لاغراض التغيير السكاني.

المادة (24):تكفل الدولة حرية الانتقال للأيدي العاملة والبضائع ورؤوس الاموال العراقية بين الاقاليم والمحافظات، وينظم ذلك بقانون.

المادة (25):تكفل الدولة اصلاح الاقتصاد العراقي وفق اسسٍ اقتصاديةٍ حديثة وبما يضمن استثمار كامل موارده، وتنويع مصادره، وتشجيع القطاع الخاص وتنميته.

المادة (26): تكفل الدولة تشجيع الاستثمارات في القطاعات المختلفة، وينظم ذلك بقانون.

المادة (27): اولاً :ـ للأموال العامة حُرمة، وحمايتها واجِب على كل مواطن.
 ثانياً :ـ تنظم بقانونٍ، الاحكام الخاصة بحفظ املاك الدولة وادارتها وشروط التصرف فيها، والحدود التي لا يجوز فيها النـزول عن شيءٍ من هذه الاموال.

المادة (28): اولاً :ـ لا تفرض الضرائب والرسوم، ولا تعدل، ولا تجبى، ولا يعفى منها، إلا بقانون .
ثانياً :ـ يعفى اصحاب الدخول المنخفضة من الضرائب، بما يكفل عدم المساس بالحد الادنى اللازم للمعيشة،
وينظم ذلك بقانون.

المادة (29):
أولاً :ـ
         أـ الأسرة أساس المجتمع، وتحافظ الدولة على كيانها وقيمها الدينية والأخلاقية والوطنية.
         ب ـ تكفل الدولة حماية الأمومة والطفولة والشيخوخة، وترعى النشئ والشباب، وتوفر لهم الظروف المناسبة لتنمية ملكاتهم وقدراتهم.

ثانياً :ـ للأولاد حقٌ على والديهم في التربية والرعاية والتعليم، وللوالدين حقٌ على أولادهم في الاحترام والرعاية، ولاسيما في حالات العوز والعجز والشيخوخة.

ثالثاً :ـ يحظر الاستغلال الاقتصادي للأطفال بصورهِ كافة، وتتخذ الدولة الإجراءات الكفيلة بحمايتهم.

رابعاً :ـ تمنع كل أشكال العنف والتعسف في الأسرة والمدرسة والمجتمع.

المادة (30):  أولاً :ـ تكفل الدولة للفرد وللأسرة ـ وبخاصة الطفل والمرأة  ـ الضمان الاجتماعي والصحي، والمقومات الأساسية للعيش في حياةٍ حرةٍ كريمة، تؤمن لهم الدخل المناسب، والسكن الملائم.
ثانياً :ـ تكفل الدولة الضمان الاجتماعي والصحي للعراقيين في حال الشيخوخة أو المرض أو العجز عن العمل أو التشرد أو اليتم أو البطالة، وتعمل على وقايتهم من الجهل والخوف والفاقة، وتوفر لهم السكن والمناهج الخاصة لتأهيلهم والعناية بهم ، وينظم ذلك بقانون .

المادة (31):
اولاً :ـ لكل عراقي الحق في الرعاية الصحية، وتعنى الدولة بالصحة العامة، وتكفل وسائل الوقاية والعلاج بإنشاء مختلف أنواع المستشفيات والمؤسسات الصحية.
ثانياً :ـ للأفراد والهيئات إنشاء مستشفياتٍ أو مستوصفاتٍ أو دور علاجٍ خاصة، وبإشرافٍ من الدولة، وينظم ذلك بقانون.

المادة (32):  ترعى الدولة المعاقين وذوي الاحتياجات الخاصة، وتكفل تأهيلهم بغية دمجهم في المجتمع، وينظم ذلك بقانون.

المادة (33):
أولاً :ـ لكل فرد حق العيش في ظروفٍ بيئيةٍ سليمة.
ثانياً :ـ تكفل الدولة حماية البيئة والتنوع الاحيائي والحفاظ عليهما.
المادة (34):
أولاً :ـ التعليم عاملٌ أساس لتقدم المجتمع وحقٌ تكفله الدولة، وهو إلزاميٌ في المرحلة الابتدائية، وتكفل الدولة مكافحة الأمية.
ثانياً :ـ التعليم المجاني حقٌ لكل العراقيين في مختلف مراحله.
ثالثاً :ـ تشجع الدولة البحث العلمي للاغراض السلمية بما يخدم الإنسانية، وترعى التفوق والإبداع والابتكار ومختلف مظاهر النبوغ.
رابعاً :ـ التعليم الخاص والاهلي مكفولٌ، وينظم بقانون.
المادة (35 ) :  ترعى الدولة النشاطات والمؤسسات الثقافية بما يتناسب مع تاريخ العراق الحضاري والثقافي، وتحرص على اعتماد توجهاتٍ ثقافيةٍ عراقيةٍ اصيلة.
المادة (36): ممارسة الرياضة حقٌ لكل فرد ، وعلى الدولة تشجيع انشطتها ورعايتها، وتوفير مستلزماتها.
الفصل الثاني [ الحريات ]
المادة ( 37 ): أولاً :ـ
أ ـ حرية الإنسان وكرامته مصونةٌ.
ب ـ لا يجوز توقيف أحد أو التحقيق معه إلا بموجب قرارٍ قضائي.
ج ـ يحرم جميع أنواع التعذيب النفسي والجسدي والمعاملة غير الإنسانية، ولا عبرة بأي اعتراف انتزع بالإكراه أو التهديد أو التعذيب، وللمتضرر المطالبة بالتعويض عن الضرر المادي والمعنوي الذي أصابه وفقاً للقانون.
ثانياً :ـ تكفل الدولة حماية الفرد من الإكراه الفكري والسياسي والديني.
ثالثاً :ـ يحرم العمل القسري ( السخرة )، والعبودية وتجارة العبيد ( الرقيق )، ويحرم الاتجار بالنساء والأطفال، و الاتجار بالجنس.
المادة (38):
تكفل الدولة، بما لا يخل بالنظام العام والآداب:
اولاً :ـ  حرية التعبير عن الرأي بكل الوسائل.
ثانياً :ـ  حرية الصحافة والطباعة والإعلان والإعلام والنشر.
ثالثاً :ـ حرية الاجتماع والتظاهر السلمي، وتنظم بقانون.
المادة (39):اولاً :ـ حرية تأسيس الجمعيات والاحزاب السياسية، او الانضمام اليها، مكفولةٌ، وينظم ذلك بقانون.
ثانياً :ـ لا يجوز اجبار أحدٍ على الانضمام الى اي حزبٍ او جمعيةٍ أو جهةٍ سياسية، او اجباره على الاستمرار في العضوية فيها.
المادة (40):
حرية الاتصالات والمراسلات البريدية والبرقية والهاتفية والالكترونية وغيرها مكفولةٌ، ولا يجوز مراقبتها أو التنصت عليها، أو الكشف عنها،  إلا لضرورةٍ قانونيةٍ وأمنية، وبقرارٍ قضائي.
المادة (41):العراقيون احرارٌ في الالتزام باحوالهم الشخصية، حسب دياناتهم أو مذاهبهم أو معتقداتهم أو اختياراتهم، وينظم ذلك بقانون.
المادة (42):لكل فرد حرية الفكر والضمير والعقيدة.
المادة (43):اولاً :ـ اتباع كل دينٍ او مذهبٍ احرارٌ في:
أ ـ ممارسة الشعائر الدينية، بما فيها الشعائر الحسينية.
ب  ـ ادارة الاوقاف وشؤونها ومؤسساتها الدينية، وينظم ذلك بقانون.
ثانياً :ـ تكفل الدولة حرية العبادة وحماية اماكنها.
المادة (44): أولاً :ـ للعراقي حرية التنقل والسفر والسكن داخل العراق وخارجه .
ثانياً :ـ لا يجوز نفي العراقي، أو إبعاده، أو حرمانه من العودة إلى الوطن.
المادة (45): اولاً :ـ  تحرص الدولة على تعزيز دور مؤسسات المجتمع المدني، ودعمها وتطويرها واستقلاليتها، بما ينسجم مع الوسائل السلمية لتحقيق الأهداف المشروعة لها، وينظم ذلك بقانون.
ثانياً :ـ تحرص الدولة على النهوض بالقبائل والعشائر العراقية، وتهتم بشؤونها بما ينسجم مع الدين والقانون، وتعزز قيمها الإنسانية النبيلة، بما يساهم في تطوير المجتمع، وتمنع الاعراف العشائرية التي تتنافى مع حقوق الانسان.
المادة (46):   لا يكون تقييد ممارسة أيٍ من الحقوق والحريات الواردة في هذا الدستور أو تحديدها الا بقانون أو بناءً عليه، على ان لا يمس ذلك التحديد والتقييد جوهر الحق أو الحرية.

السبت، 26 مارس، 2011

Rights and Freedoms - the Iraqi Constitution

 
Rights and Freedoms - the Iraqi Constitution

Part II

Rights and Freedoms


Chapter I [Rights] Section I: Civil and political rights
Article (14): Iraqis are equal before the law without discrimination because of sex, race or national origin, color, religion, sect, belief or opinion, or economic or social status.
                                                                                
Article (15): Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security, shall not be deprived of these rights or have them restricted except in accordance with the law and based on a decision of a competent judicial authority.
Article (16):
 
Equal opportunity is a right guaranteed to all Iraqis, and the state shall take the necessary measures to achieve this.
Article (17): First: Every individual has the right to personal privacy, including not incompatible with the rights of others and public morals. Second: The sanctity of the home is inviolable and may not be entered or searched or violated except by judicial decision, and in accordance with the law.
Article (18): First: Iraqi citizenship is the right of every Iraqi and is the basis of their citizenship.
Second: An Iraqi is anyone born to an Iraqi father or an Iraqi mother, and shall be regulated by law.
Third: a drop prohibits Iraqi citizenship from an Iraqi by birth for any reason, and those who shot down the right to reclaim it, and this is regulated by law. To withdraw the Iraqi citizenship from naturalized citizens in cases stated by law.
Fourthly: It is permissible for multiple nationality Iraq, and on who would assume sovereign position or a senior, security must abandon any other acquired nationality, and shall be regulated by law.
Fifth: Iraqi citizenship shall not be granted for the purposes of a policy of population settlement disrupting the demographic makeup in Iraq.
VI: The provisions of the Law of Nationality, and consider the claims arising from the competent courts.
Article (19): First: The judiciary is independent and no power other than the law.
Second: no crime or punishment except by law, and no punishment except for an act that the law considers the time of committing a crime, can not be applied heavier than the punishment allowed at the time of the crime.
Third: Litigation shall be protected and guaranteed for all.
Fourth: The right to defense is holy and guaranteed in all stages of the investigation and trial.
Fifth: The accused is innocent until proven guilty in a fair legal trial, and prosecuted the defendant for the same crime again after release, but if new evidence emerged.
Sixth: Every person has the right to be treated fairly in the judicial and administrative proceedings.
VII: Meetings of the courts shall be public unless the court decides to make them secret.
Eighth: Punishment is personal.
Ninth: Laws shall not apply retroactively unless otherwise provided, this exception does not include laws of taxes and fees. Tenth: The Penal Code does not apply retroactively only if the benefit of the accused.
Eleventh: The court shall appoint an attorney to defend defendants charged with a felony or misdemeanor who does not have a lawyer to defend him, at the expense of the state.
Twelfth: a reservation is prohibited. B may not be imprisonment or detention in places other than those designated for that according to prison laws covering health and social care and subject to the State authorities.
Thirteenth: The preliminary investigative documents to the competent judge within a period not exceeding twenty-four hours from the time of the arrest of the accused, and may be extended only once for the same period.
Article (20): Citizens, both men and women, the right to participate in public matters and enjoy political rights, including the right to vote and the nomination.
Article (21): First: Iraqi shall be surrendered to foreign entities and authorities. Second: regulating the right of political asylum to Iraq by law, may not be extradited for political refugee to a foreign entity or returned forcibly to the country from which he fled. Third: does not grant political asylum to a person accused of committing international or terrorist crimes, or all of the right to harm Iraq. Section II: Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Article (22): First: Work is a right for all Iraqis so as to ensure them a dignified life. Second: The law regulates the relationship between workers and employers on economic basis, taking into account the rules of social justice. Third: The State guarantees the right to form trade unions and professional associations, or accession thereto, and shall be regulated by law.
Article (23): First: Private property is inviolable, and the owner is entitled to use and exploit and dispose of, within the law. Second: No property may be expropriated except for purposes of public benefit in return for just compensation, and shall be regulated by law. Third: Iraqi has a right to own property anywhere in Iraq, no other person may possess immovable assets, except as exempted
      
Law. B prohibits ownership for the purpose of demographic changes.
Article (24): The State shall guarantee freedom of movement for workers, goods and Iraqi capital between the regions and governorates, and this is regulated by law.
Article (25): The State shall guarantee the reform of the Iraqi economy according to modern economic bases, including that ensures complete investment of its resources, diversifying its sources, and encourage the private sector and development.
Article (26): The State shall guarantee the promotion of investments in different sectors, and this is regulated by law.
Article (27): First: Public property is inviolable and its protection is the duty of every citizen.
 
Second: A law shall regulate the provisions for the conservation and management of State properties and conditions of their disposal, and the border may not be relinquished any of these funds.
Article (28): First: do not impose taxes and fees are not adjusted, not collected, or exempted, except by law. II: low-income earners shall be exempted from taxation, to ensure that no prejudice to the minimum necessary for a living, This shall be regulated by law.
Article (29): First:
         
A family is the basis of society and the state should preserve its identity and religious and ethical values ​​and national levels.
         
B. The State guarantees the protection of motherhood, childhood and aging, and care of children and youth and provide suitable conditions for the development of their talents and abilities.
Second: Children have the right to upbringing, care and education, parents have the right to their children to respect and care, especially in times of need, disability and old age.
Third: Economic exploitation is prohibited for children in all, the state shall take measures to protect them.
Fourth: to prevent all forms of violence and abuse in the family, school and community.
Article (30): First: The State shall guarantee to the individual and family especially children and women, social security and health, and basic requirements for living in a free and dignified lives, provide them with suitable income and appropriate housing. Second: The State shall guarantee social and health security to Iraqis in cases of old age, illness or incapacity for work, homelessness, orphanage or unemployment, and work to protect them from ignorance, fear and poverty, and provide them housing and special programs of care and rehabilitation, and this is regulated by law.

Article (31): First: Each Iraqi has the right to health care, and the state public health and ensure means of prevention and treatment by building different types of hospitals and health institutions. Second: Individuals and entities to build hospitals, clinics or private clinics, and under the supervision of the State, shall be regulated by law.
Article (32): The State shall care for the disabled and people with special needs, and guarantees their rehabilitation to integrate them in society, and this shall be regulated by law.
Article (33): First: Every individual has the right to live in safe environmental conditions. Second: The State guarantees the protection of the environment, biodiversity and conservation.
Article (34): First: Education is the basis for the progress of society and the right guaranteed by the state, which is compulsory at the primary level, and the state guarantees fighting illiteracy. Second: Free education is a right for all Iraqis in all its stages. Third: The State encourages scientific research for peaceful purposes that serve humanity, and it promotes excelling, creativity and innovation and the various manifestations of excellence. Fourth: Private and national education is guaranteed, and regulated by law.
Article (35): State sponsors cultural activities and institutions in line with Iraq's history, civilization, culture, and is keen to adopt the cultural orientations of genuine Iraqi.
Article (36): exercise the right of every individual, and the State to promote and sponsor activities, and provide accessories.

Chapter II [freedoms]
Article (37): First: A freedom and human dignity shall be inviolable. B. No one shall be detained or investigated unless by judicial decision. C prohibits all kinds of psychological and physical torture and inhumane treatment, and does not count any confession extracted by force or threats or torture, and the injured party may seek compensation for material damage and moral injury in accordance with the law. Second: The State guarantees the protection of the individual from coercion intellectual, political and religious. Third: Forced labor (forced labor), slavery and the slave trade (slavery), and prohibits trafficking in women and children, and sex trafficking.
Article (38): State shall ensure, without prejudice to public order and morality: First: The freedom of expressing opinion by all means. Second: the freedom of the press, printing, advertising, media and publishing. III: Freedom of assembly and peaceful demonstration, organized by law.

Article (39): First: The freedom to form associations and political parties, or to join it, guaranteed, and is regulated by law. Second: No one shall be compelled to join any party or association or political entity, or force him to continue his membership in it.
Article (40): Freedom of communication and correspondence, postal, telegraphic, telephonic, electronic and other means is guaranteed, and may be monitored or spied upon or revealed except for legal and security necessity and by judicial decision.
Article (41): Iraqis are free in their adherence to their personal status according to their religions, sects, beliefs, or choices, and regulated by law.
Article (42): Every individual has freedom of thought, conscience and belief.
Article (43): First: The followers of every religion and sect are free in: A practice of religious rites, including the Husseini rituals. B administration of religious endowments and their affairs and their religious institutions, and shall be regulated by law. Second: The State guarantees freedom of worship and the protection of places.
Article (44): First: Each Iraqi has freedom of movement and travel and residence within Iraq and outside it. Second: No Iraqi may be exiled, or deported, or deprived from returning to the homeland.
Article (45): First: The state is keen to strengthen the role of civil society institutions, and support, development and independence in accordance with peaceful means to realize legitimate goals, and this is regulated by law. Second: The state is keen to advance Iraqi tribes and clans, and cares about their affairs in accordance with religion, law, and promote the noble human values, which contribute to community development, and prevent the tribal customs, which are incompatible with human rights.
Article (46): Do not be restricting the exercise of any of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Constitution or by law or identified, but building it, that does not affect the selection and restriction essence of the right or freedom. First: The freedom to form associations and political parties, or to join it, guaranteed, and is regulated by law. Secondly: No one shall be compelled to join any party or association or political entity, or force him to continue his membership in it. First: Each Iraqi has the right to health care, and the state public health and ensure means of prevention and treatment by building different types of hospitals and health institutions. Secondly: by individuals and organizations to build hospitals, clinics or private clinics, and under the supervision of the State, shall be regulated by law. First: Work is a right for all Iraqis so as to ensure them a dignified life. Second: The law regulates the relationship between workers and employers on economic basis, taking into account the rules of social justice. Third: The State guarantees the right to form trade unions and professional associations, or accession to, and regulates by law. First: Private property is inviolable, and the landlord can use, exploit and dispose of them, within the law. Second: No property may be expropriated except for purposes of public benefit in return for just compensation, and shall be regulated by law. Third: A. Iraqi has the right to own property in anywhere in Iraq, no other person may possess immovable assets, except as exempted by law. to prohibit ownership for the purposes of demographic change. The State shall guarantee freedom of movement for workers, goods and Iraqi capital between the regions and governorates, and this is regulated by law. The State shall guarantee the reform of the Iraqi economy in accordance with criteria modern economic and that ensures complete investment of its resources, diversifying its sources, and encourage the private sector and development. Iraqis are equal before the law without discrimination because of sex, race or national origin, color, religion, sect, belief or opinion, or economic or social status. Everyone has the right to life and security and freedom, may not be deprived of these rights or restricted except in accordance with the law, Based on a decision of a competent judicial authority. Equal opportunity is a right guaranteed to all Iraqis, and the state shall take the necessary measures to achieve this. First: Every individual has the right to personal privacy, including not incompatible with the rights of others and public morals. Second: The sanctity of the home is inviolable and may not be entered or searched or violated except by judicial decision, and in accordance with the law. First: Iraqi citizenship is the right of every Iraqi and is the basis of their citizenship. Second: An Iraqi is anyone born to an Iraqi father or an Iraqi mother, and shall be regulated by law. III: A forbidden to withdraw the Iraqi citizenship from an Iraqi by birth for any reason of reasons, and those who did dropped to reclaim it, and this is regulated by law. to withdraw the Iraqi citizenship from naturalized citizens in cases stated by law. IV: may have multiple sexual Iraq, and who assumes a sovereign position or a senior, security abandonment of any nationality Other acquired, shall be regulated by law. Fifth: Iraqi citizenship shall not be granted for the purposes of a policy of population settlement disrupting the demographic makeup in Iraq. VI: The provisions of the Law of Nationality, and consider the claims arising from the competent courts. Iraqis are equal before the law without discrimination because of sex, race or national origin, color, religion, sect, belief or opinion, or economic or social status. Everyone has the right to life and security and freedom, may not be deprived of these rights or restricted except in accordance with the law, Based on a decision of a competent judicial authority. Equal opportunity is a right guaranteed to all Iraqis, and the state shall take the necessary measures to achieve this. First: Every individual has the right to personal privacy, including not incompatible with the rights of others and public morals. Second: The sanctity of the home is inviolable and may not be entered or searched or violated except by judicial decision, and in accordance with the law. First: Iraqi citizenship is the right of every Iraqi and is the basis of their citizenship. Second: An Iraqi is anyone born to an Iraqi father or an Iraqi mother, and shall be regulated by law. III: A forbidden to withdraw the Iraqi citizenship from an Iraqi by birth for any reason of reasons, and those who did dropped to reclaim it, and this is regulated by law. to withdraw the Iraqi citizenship from naturalized citizens in cases stated by law. IV: may have multiple sexual Iraq, and who assumes a sovereign position or a senior, security abandonment of any nationality Other acquired, shall be regulated by law. Fifth: Iraqi citizenship shall not be granted for the purposes of a policy of population settlement disrupting the demographic makeup in Iraq. VI: The provisions of the Law of Nationality, and consider the claims arising from the competent courts. Iraqis are equal before the law without discrimination because of sex, race or national origin, color, religion, sect, belief or opinion, or economic or social status. Everyone has the right to life and security and freedom, may not be deprived of these rights or restricted except in accordance with the law, Based on a decision of a competent judicial authority. Equal opportunity is a right guaranteed to all Iraqis, and the state shall take the necessary measures to achieve this. First: Every individual has the right to personal privacy, including not incompatible with the rights of others and public morals. Second: The sanctity of the home is inviolable and may not be entered or searched or violated except by judicial decision, and in accordance with the law. First: Iraqi citizenship is the right of every Iraqi and is the basis of their citizenship. Second: An Iraqi is anyone born to an Iraqi father or an Iraqi mother, and shall be regulated by law. III: A forbidden to withdraw the Iraqi citizenship from an Iraqi by birth for any reason of reasons, and those who did dropped to reclaim it, and this is regulated by law. to withdraw the Iraqi citizenship from naturalized citizens in cases stated by law. IV: may have multiple sexual Iraq, and who assumes a sovereign position or a senior, security abandonment of any nationality Other acquired, shall be regulated by law. Fifth: Iraqi citizenship shall not be granted for the purposes of a policy of population settlement disrupting the demographic makeup in Iraq. VI: The provisions of the Law of Nationality, and consider the claims arising from the competent courts. Rights and Freedoms

الجمعة، 25 مارس، 2011

Declaration on the Right to Development

Declaration on the Right to Development
Declaration on the Right to Development Declaration on the Right to Development
Adopted and Proclaimed by General Assembly resolution Of the United Nations in resolution 41/128 of December 4, December 1986 The General Assembly, Bearing in mind the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations related to the achievement of international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion, Recognizing that development is the process of economic, social, cultural and political process aimed at continuous improvement of the well-being of the entire population and all individuals on the basis of their active, free and meaningful participation in development and in the equitable distribution of benefits resulting therefrom, Considering that everyone is entitled, under the provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, to enjoy a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized, Recalling the provisions of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Recalling further the relevant agreements, conventions and resolutions, recommendations and other instruments issued by the United Nations and its specialized agencies concerning the integral development of man and the progress and development of all peoples economically and socially, including those instruments concerning decolonization, the prevention of discrimination, and respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and preservation of international peace and security, and further strengthen the friendly relations and cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter, Recalling the right of peoples to self-determination by virtue of which have the right to determine freely their political status and to pursue their economic, social and cultural freedom, Recalling also the right of peoples to exercise full and complete sovereignty over all its wealth and natural resources taking into account the relevant provisions of the International Covenants on Human Rights, Bearing in mind the obligation of States under the Charter to promote universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction of any kind such as race, color, sex, language or religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status, Considering that the elimination of the massive and flagrant violations of human rights of peoples and individuals affected by situations such as those resulting from colonialism, and neo-colonialism, apartheid and all forms of racism, racial discrimination, foreign domination and occupation, aggression and threats against national sovereignty, national unity and territorial integrity, and threats of war, that would contribute to creating favorable conditions for the development of a large part of humanity, Concerned about the existence of serious obstacles in the way of development of human beings and peoples and to the complete fulfillment, arose, inter alia, the denial of civil and political rights, economic, social and cultural rights, Considering that all human rights and fundamental freedoms are indivisible and interdependent and that promoting development must be given equal attention equality to the implementation, promotion and protection of civil and political rights, economic, social, cultural and urgent consideration and that it can not, accordingly, to justify the strengthening of certain human rights and fundamental freedoms, respect for and enjoyment of the denial of other human rights and fundamental freedoms, Considering that international peace and security are essential elements for the realization of the right to development, Reaffirming the existence of a close relationship between disarmament and development, and progress in the field of disarmament would greatly enhance progress in the field of development, and that resources released through disarmament measures should be devoted to economic and social development for all peoples and well-being, particularly those of developing countries, Recognizing that the human is the central subject of the development process, so it should be the policy of development that make the human being the main participant and beneficiary of development, including the main, Recognizing that the creation of conditions conducive to the development of peoples and individuals is the responsibility of their States, Aware that efforts at the international level to promote and protect human rights should be accompanied by efforts to establish new international economic order, Emphasizing that the right to development is a human right is inalienable, and that equality of opportunity for development is the right of nations and of individuals who make up nations, alike. Issued the Declaration on the Right to Development, set out as follows: Article 1 1. The right to development of human rights is an inalienable right by virtue of which every human person and all peoples to participate in, contribute to economic development and social, cultural and political development and the enjoyment of those in which the realization of all human rights and fundamental freedoms fully realized. 2. Involves the human right to development also the full realization of the right of peoples to self-determination, which includes, subject to the relevant provisions of International Covenants on Human Rights, the exercise of its right, is inalienable, in the exercise of full sovereignty over all its wealth and natural resources. Article 2 1. Man is the central subject of development and should be an active participant in the right to development and the beneficiary of it. 2. All human beings have a responsibility for development, individually and collectively, taking into account the need for full respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms as well as their duties to the community in which alone can ensure the fulfillment of the human itself freely and fully, and they should therefore promote and protect the political and social system and appropriate economic for development. 3. States have the right and duty to formulate policies appropriate national development aimed at continuous improvement of the well-being of all people and all individuals on the basis of their active, free and meaningful participation in development and in the equitable distribution of benefits resulting therefrom. Article 3 1. The State bears the primary responsibility for the creation of national and international conditions favorable for the realization of the right to development. 2. Requires the realization of the right to development, full respect for the principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. 3. States have the duty to cooperate with each other in ensuring development and eliminating obstacles to development. And States should fulfill their rights and duties in a manner to promote a new international economic order based on sovereign equality, interdependence, mutual benefit and cooperation among all States, and further encourages the observance of human rights and their realization. Article 4 1. States have the duty to take steps, individually and collectively, to formulate international development policies with a view to facilitating the realization of the right to development be fully realized. 2. Action is required to promote the continuous development of developing countries to move faster. And effective international cooperation, as a complement to the efforts of developing countries, is essential to provide these countries with appropriate means and facilities to foster their comprehensive development. Article 5 States shall take resolute steps to eliminate the massive and flagrant violations of human rights of peoples and individuals affected by situations such as those resulting from apartheid, all forms of racism, racial discrimination, colonialism, foreign domination and occupation, aggression, foreign interference and threats against national sovereignty, national unity and territorial integrity, and threats of war, and refused to recognize the fundamental right of peoples to self-determination. Article 6 1. Should be for all States to cooperate with a view to promoting, encouraging and strengthening universal respect for and observance of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion. 2. All human rights and fundamental freedoms are indivisible and interrelated, and should be given equal attention to the implementation, promotion and protection of civil and political rights, economic, social and cultural rights, and urgent consideration. 3. States should take steps to eliminate obstacles to development resulting from failure to observe civil and political rights, as well as economic, social and cultural rights. Article 7 All States should promote the establishment, maintenance and enhancement of international peace and security, and to this end, should do everything in their power to achieve general and complete disarmament under effective international control, as well as for the use of resources released by effective disarmament measures for development overall, particularly the development of developing countries. Article 8 1. States should undertake, at the national level, all necessary measures for the realization of the right to development and must ensure that, inter alia, equality of opportunity for all in their access to basic resources, education and health services, food, housing, employment and equitable distribution of income. Should take effective measures to ensure that women play an active role in the development process. Should be carried out economic reforms and social occasion with a view to eradicating all social injustices. 2. States should encourage popular participation in all spheres as an important factor in development and in the full realization of all human rights. Article 9 1. All aspects of the right to development set forth in this Declaration are indivisible and interdependent and should be considered to each and every one of them in the context of the whole. 2. Nothing in this Declaration shall be interpreted as inconsistent with the purposes and principles of the United Nations or to mean that any State, group or individual has a right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at violation of the rights set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the International Covenants on Human Rights . Article 10 Steps should be taken to ensure the exercise of the right to development the full exercise and progressive enhancement, including the formulation, adoption and implementation of policy measures, legislative measures and other measures at the national and international levels