السبت، 10 ديسمبر، 2011

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolutionOf the United Nations 217 A (3) of 10 December / December 1948PreambleWhereas recognition of all members of the human family of the inherent dignity and equal and inalienable rights is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the human beings shall enjoy the advent of a world in which freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want, Whereas it is them,And Whereas it is essential that human rights protection legal system, if man is not forced last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression,Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and human dignity and worth, and equality of men and women in rights, and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the United Nations, the promotion of respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the utmost necessity for the full realization of this pledge,The General AssemblyProclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures , to secure national and international recognition of their universal and effective observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.Article 1All people are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.Article 2Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, opinion, political, or national or social origin, property , birth or other status.Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of a country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.Article 3Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.Article 4No one may be held in slavery or servitude, prohibited slavery and the slave trade in all their forms.Article 5No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel treatment or punishment, inhuman or degrading treatment.Article 6Everyone, everywhere, have the right to recognition of legal personality.Article 7All are equal before the law and are entitled to equal protection of the law without any discrimination, as entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.Article 8Everyone has the right to resort to the competent national tribunals for any effective remedy for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or the law.Article 9May not be the arrest of any person or arbitrary detention or exile.Article 10Everyone is on equal footing with others, the right to hearing by independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination, the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.Article 111. Every person accused of a crime is presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defense.2. Not held guilty of any penal offense on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offense, under national or international law, nor does it expect any punishment more severe than the one that was applicable at the time it was committed the criminal act.Article 12No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honor and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.Article 131. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of the state.2. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.Article 141. Everyone has the right to seek refuge in other countries and enjoy asylum from persecution.2. Can not invoke that right if there were prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.Article 151. Everyone has the right to a nationality.2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.Article 161. For men and women of full age have the right to marry and to found a family, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion. And are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.2. Marriage shall be only with the consent of the intending spouses and full consent of spouses.3. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the state.Article 171. Everyone has the right to own property alone or jointly with others.2. No one shall be deprived of his property arbitrarily.Article 18Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom to manifest religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and education, individually or in community with others and in public or alone.Article 19Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek and impart information and ideas, receive and impart to others, any media and regardless of frontiers.Article 201. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.2. No one may be compelled to belong to an association.Article 211. Everyone has the right to participate in the management of public affairs of his country, either directly or through freely chosen representatives.2. Everyone, equally with others, the right of access to public service in his country.3. The will of the people is the basis of the authority of government, and shall be expressed this will in genuine periodic elections by universal and equal suffrage and by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.Article 22Everyone, as a member of society, the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international cooperation, and consistent with the structure of each country and its resources, economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and development of his personality in freedom.Article 231. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, fair working conditions and satisfactory, and to protection against unemployment.2. To all individuals, without any discrimination, the right to equal pay for equal work.3. Everyone who works has the right to just and favorable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.4. Everyone has the right to form trade unions and to join in order to protect his interests.Article 24Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.Article 251. Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and has the right to be safe livelihood in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other circumstances beyond for his control means of subsistence.2. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children shall enjoy the same social protection, whether born in wedlock or out of the window.Article 261. Everyone has the right to education. And Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. And the technical and vocational education available to the public. And higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.2. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and strengthen respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations and all racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations peacekeeping.3. Parents have a prior right to choose the type of education given to their children.Article 271. Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.2. Everyone has the right to the protection of moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic work of the author.Article 28Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.Article 291. Everyone has duties to the community in which alone can grow free and full development of his personality.2. Is not subject to any individual, in the exercise of his rights and freedoms, only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition of the rights and freedoms of others and respect, and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and welfare in a democratic society.3. May in no case be exercised these rights in a manner contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.Article 30Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

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